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Articles, Cumulative

Page history last edited by Abdurrahim Hocagil 10 months, 2 weeks ago


Two Articles on Courageous Followership in Chinese Context (Shared  and uploaded in January 2022)


The Courageous Followership Behavior: A literature Review and Prospects By Cao Yuankun, Zhou Qing, Liu Shanshi, Zhu Zhenbing


Summary: The Courageous Followership Behavior (CFB) means that followers are courageous to

build up good inter dynamic relations with leaders, take responsibility, serve, challenge, change and take moral action(leave)for the purpose of reaching organizational goals. CFB plays a role in supervising, regulating, and restraining the toxic leadership, furthermore, it is also a key point for organizations to find success. Considering there does exist CFB in Chinese context, and the cultural differences between China and the West, we deem it necessary to implement the related studies for the sake of practical…


The article is in Chinese, and you can find it in the files document as a PDF file.



Scale Development and Validation of Courageous Followership Behavior in Chinese Context by Cao Yuankun, Zhou Qing, Zhu Zhenbing, and  Xiong Li



Abstract: Courageous Followership Behavior( CFB) plays an important role to develop exemplary leadership, preventing bad leadership and increasing the following ability. CFB research in China is growing, but always lacks local situation measurement tools, and the scale items of foreign research are too many to cause confusion. To solve this problem,53 initial items of CFB are obtained by combining interview text analysis and the existing scales from foreign studies. Based on deep-interviews and open-ended questionnaire surveys conducted on a sample of Chinese workplace, we design primary Scale of CFB of 1 9items, which includes five dimensions consisting of Courage to take responsibility, courage to serve, courage to innovate, courage to challenge and courage to take moral action. Exploratory factor analysis EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis ( CFA) are carried out. The empirical test shows that hope and self-efficacy has an effective promotion on CFB. It provides a theoretical basis for Chinese organization to guide the management practice of developing Courageous Followership and exemplary leadership.


The article is in Chinese, and you can find it in the files document as a PDF file.




Articles and Books (Updated November 2021)


Ekundayo, John Time to focus on Followers: Looking at the other side of the Leadership ‘coin’. Academic Leadership: The Online Journal Volume 8 Issue 4 Fall 2010


"The leadership literature is replete with who a leader is, what leaders do, models or styles of leadership, leadership development, leadership succession, great heroic acts of leaders, etc with little said or written about the followers who constitute the enigmatic majority in many organizations today (Adair, 2006). However, it is the view of some scholars that leadership is a dynamic interplay of influential relationships between leaders and followers situationally involved in a process with an anticipation of mutual outcomes (Pierce & Newstrom, 2008 and Hughes, R. L., et al., 2008). It is in this light that one can say without mincing words that leadership can not occur unless there is followership- the other side of the coin. Simply and squarely put, in a situation, there is a leader where there is (are) follower(s)."



NOTE ABOUT LINKS: Many of our links to urls  have become obsolete since they were first published. Subscribers who discover revised information about digital locations and urls should either correct the links or notify us. In any case, we have tried to provide substantial bibliographical citations whenever possible-- Elisabeth H. Null


Articles and Books


Adair, Rodger "The Psychological Distance within the Dynamics of the Leader/Follower Relationship," Kravis Leadership Institute, Leadership Review, Vol. 10, Winter 2010, pp. 27 - 38

For the last few decades (1980's through the present), the majority of social psychology research into leadership dynamics of an organization has focused on the management employee, treating the rank and file with cursory interest through studies on productivity, job satisfaction and retention. With the introduction of the terms "Follower" and "Followership" injected into the leadership/management vocabulary, social psychologists and leadership consultants began taking a fresh new look at the human side of work. This new line of inquiry focuses on the follower in the organization, while this paper takes a close look at the leader-follower dynamic in the workplace. The literature review identified eight workforce relationship factors as common themes within the leader-follower relationship. These selected categories identify the multifaceted leader-follower dynamic to working relationships, showing whether leader and the follower have a distal (or psychologically distant), or proximal (or psychologically aligned) relationship, and whether each is comfortable with their working arrangement (positive or negative). To better illuminate this interaction of opposites, a case scenario will be employed to describe how proximal and distal interactions look before and after an upsetting workplace event.



Amabile, Teresa M. and Steven J. Kramer, 1."What Really Motivates Workers: Understanding the Power of Progress," (The HBR List: Breakthrough Ideas for 2010)

Harvard Business Review (January-February 2010)


In The Harvard Business Review, the headlining breakthrough idea (out of ten) for 2010 is that what motivates "knowledge workers" the most is not recognition, incentives, interpersonal support, or clear goals. It's a sense of progress. "On days when workers have the sense they're making headway in their jobs, or when they receive support that helps them overcome obstacles," the authors write, "their emotions are most positive and their drive to succeed is at its peak." On the other hand, days when they spin their wheels or encounter roadblocks to meaningful accomplishment, their moods and motivation are lowest. The article is based on a multiyear study that tracked day-to-day activities, emotions, and motivation levels of hundreds of knowledge workers in a wide range of settings. So what advice does The Business Review offer to those in charge? "Scrupulously avoid impeding progress by changing goals autocratically, being indecisive, or holding up resources. Negative events generally have a greater effect on people's emotions, perceptions, and motivation than positive ones, and nothing is more demotivating than a setback -- the most prominent type of event on knowledge workers' worst days."

Read more: http://hbr.org/2010/01/the-hbr-list-breakthrough-ideas-for-2010/ar/1

Anders, George,"Management Leaders Turn New Attention To Followers," . Theory and Practice, Wall Street Journal. December 24, 2007; Page B3 There is a WSJ forum related to this article that discusses the question: "Who's more crucial to a company's success, top management or lower-level employees.


Baker, Susan D. " Followership: the theoretical foundation of a contemporary construct ." Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies,14, no.1:50-60 August, 2007

This article presents the theoretical foundation of followership. The words follower and followership are increasingly used in discussions of leadership and organizations, and many think that the field of followership began in 1988 with Kelley's “In Praise of Followers.” Followership research began in 1955, and literature in the social sciences discussed followers and followership for decades prior. By examining why leadership rather than followership is emphasized; discussing antecedents, early theory, and research about followership; and identifying common themes found in the literature, this article provides the foundation that has been missing in contemporary discussion of the followership construct.




Bennis, Warren "FollowershipNational Association of Litho Clubs, 2008


 "Perhaps the ultimate irony is that the follower willing to speak out shows precisely the kind of initiative that leadership is made of."


Berg, David, "Resurrecting the Muse: Followership in Organizations," The Psychodynamics of Leadership (eds. Klein , Gabelnick, Herr). Psychosocial Press: 1998


In a field that is seeing increasing numbers of rich contributions to its literature, the article "Resurrecting the Muse: Followership in Organizations" by David N. Berg, Ph. D is, in my opinion, the most important single piece of writing on followership I've read since Barbara Kellerman's book "Followership". Dr. Berg approaches the subject from a pyschodynamic perspective which, while not unique in the literature, is certainly rare. It permits him to draw on a fascinating array of cultural examples to help us formulate new understandings of the deficiency of leader-centric models, and to appreciate on deeper levels the nature of the interdependent bonds that exist in true follower-leader relationships.


 The formulation of his thinking is also fresh. He pulls his imagery from participants in a series of workshops he has conducted on followership. In response to his probing, the participants offer a colorful range of models of followership the culture has impressed on their psyches. By exploring the commonalities of these models and artfully categorizing them, Dr. Berg offers a peek into our cultural "collective unconscious" on follower-leader relationships. He offers brilliant analysis of the struggle in mature follower-leader relationships and the great opportunities for mutual fulfillment. And he does all this in a  remarkably accessible style delightfully free of  jargon that the very notion of psychodynamics can evoke. We are indebted to him for expanding the richness of the literature in the field--- Ira Chaleff


Bluedorn, Allen C. and Kimberly S. Jaussi, Leaders, Followers, and Time,"  The Leadership Quarterly

Volume 19, Issue 6, December 2008 (free access to ILA members)


 In order to consider leadership from a temporal perspective, we examine extant leadership research that refers to temporal variables in its theorizing and/or empirical testing. We consider rhythmic patterns manifested in leader and follower behavior and employ entrainment, polychronicity, pace/speed, punctuality, and temporal depth as categorization concepts for the analysis. Further, we propose general theoretical statements about temporal dimensions and their prospective roles in relationships and processes related to leadership.



Bjugstad, Kent and Elizabeth C. Thach, Karen J. Thompson, and Alan Morris "A Fresh Look at Followership: A Model for Matching Followership and Leadership Style," Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, Vol. 7, no.3 , 2006

Followership has been an understudied topic in the academic literature and an underappreciated topic among practitioners. Although it has always beenimportant, the study of followership has become even more crucial with the

advent of the information age and dramatic changes in the workplace. This paper provides a fresh look at followership by providing a synthesis of theliterature and presents a new model for matching followership styles to leadership styles. The model’s practical value lies in its usefulness for describing how leaders can best work with followers, and how followers can best work with



Chaleff, Ira  " Promoting the healthy flow of information to senior leaders," Leader to Leader,  Spring. 2010 pp.12-16


Chaleff, Ira "Bullies' Hidden Danger: End the Spiral of Cruelty Through Intervention of Bystanders,: "Baltimore Sun. February 14, 2008

Hollander, Edwin P., "Ethical challenges in the leader-follower relationship," Business Ethics Quarterly (BEQ). 1995: 5(??), 55 - 65.


Clements, Christine and John B. Washbush, "The Two Faces of Leadership: Considering the Dark Side of Leader-Follower Dynamics,"  Journal of Workplace Learning: Employee Counseling Today, vol. 11, no. 5 (1999)


Leaders are not always benevolent; their intents not always benign.  Followers are not necessarily passive and devoid of responsibility.  History has taught us these lessons enough times - why then is popularmanagement literature so full of inspirational transformational models of leadership?



Cremer, David de and E. van Dijk, "Leader-follower effects in resource dilemmas: The roles of leadership selection and social responsibility," Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM). ERIM Article Series (EAS), 2008-2007 pp.355-369.

Previous research on the allocation of scarce resources shows that when people are assigned labels of leader or follower in their group, leaders allocate more of the scarce resources to themselves than followers do. In three laboratory studies, we examine the idea that how people are selected for the leader role (i.e. election or appointment) determines whether leaders take more or equal shares (relative to followers) from a common resource. In a first experiment, we show that participants were more accepting of norm violating behavior by an appointed versus elected leader. In a second experiment, we show that when participants were assigned to a leader or follower role, allocations of appointed leaders differed significantly from those of elected leaders and followers, whereas there was no difference between the two latter conditions. Moreover, elected leaders were shown to feel more social responsibility than both appointed leaders and followers. In a final experiment, we show that when participants were primed with the concept of social responsibility (relative to a neutral condition) no difference in allocations between appointed and elected leaders emerged.



Cummins, Richard Stories of migrant farm workers at a servant-led orchard, Dissertation, Gonzaga University, 2008 



Writings about servant-leadership so far have focused primarily on the leader, and scholars in the field of leadership studies have paid relatively little attention to the potential revolutionary impact that servant-leadership has on followers if fully practiced. To gain a better understanding of followers in a servant-led institution, this study gathered stories from the workers in a servant-led organization and analyzed them through the lens of Greenleaf's "best test" (2002). A chapter section that reviews models of followership is presented here.


Gilbert, Jillian and Sergio Matviuk "The Symbiotic Nature of the Leader-Follower relationship and Its Impact on Organizational Effectiveness,"  Academic Leadership: The Online Journal, Vol. 6, #4, 2008


 Glasoslash, Lars and Staringle Einarsen "Emotion regulation in leader-follower relationships," European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Volume 17, Issue 4 December 2008 , pages 482 - 500

This study investigates the extent to which leaders and followers express, suppress or fake their emotions during interaction, using a sample of 135 leaders and 207 followers. The respondents completed questionnaires on emotion regulation, the relationship quality between leaders and followers (LMX), job satisfaction, and health complaints. The data indicate that negative emotions such as disappointment, uncertainty, and annoyance are typically suppressed, while positive emotions such as enthusiasm, interest, and calmness are typically expressed or faked. The reported level of emotion regulation was higher for leaders than for followers. Suppressing and faking emotions correlated negatively with the LMX and job satisfaction, and positively with health complaints among both groups. Emotion regulation is thus a prominent and complex facet of leader – follower relationships with possible negative effects for both leaders and followers.


Grillo, Michael "The Social Psychology of Leadership and Followership in Symbolic Politics Theory: An Experimental Approach to Studying Why Individuals Follow Nationalist Elites," Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th Annual Convention "Bridging Mational Divides," San Francisco, CA. (Mar. 26, 2008) .pdf


This paper asks what are the factors that prompt individuals to support the initiatives of chauvinistic nationalist leaders? I argue that both the ethnic conflict and nationalist literatures have not given sufficient attention to the individual level factors that would prompt ordinary people to follow nationalist leaders and eventually engage in violence for the sake of their group. But rather, the majority of the research from both the rationalist and ideational traditions have deduced the factors that drive individual and mass behavior from theoretical assumptions and evidence the centers only on the actions and rhetoric of elites. Thus, while scholars have adequately addressed how elites can mobilize mass populations, they have given little attention as to why elites are able to do to so. To address these empirical and theoretical gaps, I develop an approach that builds upon symbolic politics theory and insights from social psychology. I contend that hostile myths and symbols evoke an array of negative emotions that facilitates more rigid thinking and an openness to taking risks, and that individuals support elites who offer an outlet for these emotions because it fulfills basic psychological needs such as having a positive individual and collective sense self-esteem and a feeling of control over the current situation and the future. I test both my modified symbolic politics approach and its rational choice competitor with a laboratory experiment that utilizes 200 undergraduate subjects.



Haslam, S. Alexander and Michael J. Platow

The Link between Leadership and Followership: How Affirming Social Identity Translates Vision into Action, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 27, No. 11, 1469-1479 (2001)


 Two experiments test the hypothesis that support for leaders is enhanced when their decisions affirm a distinct social identity that is shared with followers. In Experiment 1, participants showed less support for a leader who favored ingroup members who were relatively sympathetic to an outgroup position than for one who favored ingroup members who opposed an outgroup position. This finding was replicated in Experiment 2, which also showed that this pattern extended to support for the leader’s novel plans. Although participants indicated that they supported a leader who behaved evenhandedly toward all ingroup members as much as one whose behavior was identity-affirming, they were unwilling to back up the evenhanded leader with written comments and arguments. These data suggest that leaders’ capacity to engender active followership is contingent on their ability to promote collective interests associated with a shared ingroup identity.


Heller, Trudy  and Jon Van Til "Leadership and Followership: Some Summary Propositions," Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 1982; 18; 405

"My co-administrator, Elisabeth Higgins Null, recently discovered the following major article on Followership published in 1982, even earlier than Robert Kelley's seminal Harvard Business Review article "In Praise of Followers" published in 1988. For anyone with a strong interest in Followership, I suggest that this is a "must read". In addition to early statements of principles found in my own book and elsewhere, there are some unique and even provocative insights that I have not seen stated in other works on the relations of leadership and followership." ~ Ira Chaleff



Hrivnak, George A and Tjai M. Nielsen "Leader-Follower Extraversion Congruence and Follower Perceptions of Transformational Leadership: A Test Using Response Surface Modeling ," George Washington University August 1, 2008 (working paper available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1294008)


Using polynomial regression and response surface modeling in a lagged field study, we examine relationships among leader and follower extraversion fit and follower ratings of transformational leadership.  This paper builds on prior research investigating the influence that leader and follower personality factors have on follower perceptions of leadership.


Data from a sample of 117 Naval Midshipmen dyads suggest that leader-follower extraversion congruence at Time 1 was positively related to higher follower ratings of transformational leadership at Time 2. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to perceptions and attributions of leadership, the potential role that extraversion congruence may play in the development of leader-follower relationships, and the role of personality across different fit contexts.


Hollander, Edwin, Inclusive Leadership:The Essential Leader-Follower Relationship (Series in Applied Psychology).Routledge Academic, 2008


Hurwitz, Marc & Samantha (2009) "The romance of the follower - part 3", Industrial and Commercial Training, 41(6) pp. 326-333.


This third and final article in a series shows practical applications of ideas followship brings to organizational development. Leaders must learn to model followship, and use it to solve staff performance issues. HR departments should include followship training to enrich development planning and, in the case of enterprise-wide change such as mergers and acquisitions, speed and improve the results. Finally, providing followship training helps prevent executive derailment, improves Gen Y integration, and enhances the opportunities for high performers' career development.




Hurwitz, Marc & Hurwitz, Samantha (2009). "The romance of the follower - part 2", Industrial and Commercial Training, 41(4), pp. 199-206.

"Part 2 aims to present a comprehensive framework to understand followership and clarify how and where followership is different (and the same) as leadership. It seeks to show how previous research fits into this new framework, as well as highlighting gaps and opportunities."


Hurwitz, Marc & Hurwitz, Samantha (2009). "The romance of the follower - part 1", Industrial and Commercial Training, 41(2), pp. 80-86.

"The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to provide a compelling argument that followership has significant practical value in enhancing career and organizational value; and, second, to encourage dialogue about followership. Part 2 will extend current ideas about followership to provide a more comprehensive, holistic model. Part 3 will show how the model can be used as a training tool, in mentoring, for performance appraisals, and in designing HR solution"


Johnson, Craig E. "Introducing Followership into the Leadership Classroom: An Integrative Approach," Journal of Leadership Education Vol. 8, no.2, 2009 pp.20-31. The whole  is downloaded as a .pdf file.

I recommend this article and picked up at least one pedagogic technique from it myself—

Ira Chaleff





Keller, Tiffany and Ron Cacioppe "Leader-follower attachments: understanding parental images at work," Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol 22, issue 2, 2001

This article examines how attachment styles may influence relationships with followers. Specifically, early family relationships result in three types of attachment styles that may impact current interpersonal dynamics between leaders and followers. We consider why attachments develop, how attachments may influence follower and leader behavior, and the dynamics of different attachment styles. Finally, we suggest that attachment theory can be an important addition to leadership theories that focus on understanding how followers and leaders interact based on interpersonal dynamics.



Kellerman, Barbara " 

What Every Leader Needs to Know About Followers," Harvard Business Review. December I, 2007



Kupers, Wendelin and Juergen Weibler "Interleadership: why and how should we think of leadership and followership integrally?" Leadership, Volume 4 Issue 4, 2008 pages 443 - 475

This article raises questions about and providesmeta-paradigmatic perspectives on an integralunderstanding of leadership. In view of the various shortcomings of conventional leadership discourse, anintegral orientation considers that leadershipresearch demands a comprehensive framework and multi-level approach suited for investigating the complex, interrelatedprocesses involved. Correspondingly, theoutlined integral framework of leadership covers the interdependent subjective, intersubjective andobjective dimensions of leaders and leadership.Furthermore, developmental levels and lines — classified in a dynamic cycle — open up aprocessual understanding of leadership.Finally, theoretical and methodological implications are discussed and some avenues for future research andperspectives of integral leadership presented.



Kuper, Wendelin, "Transformational emotional competent “Leader-Followership as Medium for Enhanced Goodness in Organizations," Abstract for CMS 2003

The aim of the paper is to show how an emotional competent transformational “leader-followership” can serve as a medium for the enhancement of the individual and collective goodness. In today's economy, ubiquitous, continuous and dynamic changes are all-pervasive in organizations (Armenakis/Bedeian 1999) which requires also a changed practice of Transformational Leadership itself (Bass 1985; Tichy & Devanna 1985; 1990 Hesselbein etal. 1996). Based on this insight the paper will develop an integrative approach which offers a new focus on a transformed “Leader-Follower-Relationship” related to an extended understanding of goodness. For this, implicit assumptions of conventional Transformational Leadership theories need to be critised and the concept extended to a more relational understanding. In contrast to the “heroic leadership” stereotype (Yukl 1999, Calder 1977,Meindl et al 1985, Meindl, 1990, 1993; Kelley 1992, Chaleff 1995), which focused primarily on independent individuals and a unidirectional influence between the leader and the follower,the paper regards the reciprocal, multi-dimensional and multi-level processes and possibilities of a shared “Leader-Follower-Ship” between both. By transcending the leadership/followership dualism (Hollander 1992, 1993) and considering and managing relational dimensions and inter-connectedness (Luke 1991) on all levels a “full-range leadership system” (Avolio 1999) can be attained.



Kuper, Wendelin Perspectives on Integrating Leadership and Follower," International Journal of leadership Studies, Vol 2, no. 3, 2009

 This paper proposes a framework for the integration of leadership and followership. An integral orientation considers that leadership is constitutively linked with followership and vice versa. Facing the diversity of approaches and theories in both fields, a comprehensive conceptualization is presented that is suited to investigating complex, interrelated processes of leading and following. Based on a holonic understanding, integral perspectives cover the interdependent subjective, intersubjective, and objective dimensions of leaders and followers; respectively, leadership and followership within a developmental perspective. Based on an integral orientation, further processual and relational dimensions are discussed by which mutually interwoven leadership/followership can be understood as an emerging event, embedded within an ongoing, interrelated nexus. Finally, the paper outlines some theoretical and methodological implications and perspectives for future research of an integral leadership and followership.


Lim, Jason "Uncomfortable 'Followers,"  The Korea Times (04/16/07)

The moral argument by Jason Lim in this Korean Times article is a compelling example of the potential difference courageous followership can make in transforming the world. Kim studied with Barbara Kellerman at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government. In addition to her own work, Followership, Kellerman uses elements of my book "The Courageous Follower: Standing Up To and For Our Leaders" in her class on followership. I am pleased to inform Jason and others that the book has been published in Korea by Sigma Press, Inc. In the article Lim calls for other Asian countries to also pay more attention to what is good followership, so I will also refer to the Chinese translation of The Courageous Follower by Successmart in Taipei and a forthcoming Japanese translation by Diamond Press in Tokyo. As the title changes to make linguistic and cultural sense in other languages, a search by author may be most productive— Ira Chaleff


Linecker, Adelia Cellini "Ways To Back Your Boss," Investor's Business Daily (12/30/09) offers tips to middle managers, executive assistants, and others serving as gatekeepers for leaders higher up the chain of command. Based on  an interview with Ira Chaleff.


Lippitt, Ronald "The Changing Leader-Follower Relationships of the 1980s," Journal of Applied Behavioral Science.1982; 18: 395-403. Available though Sage Journals Online: http://jab.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/18/3/395


Luhrmann, T., and P. Eberl. 2007".Leadership and identity constru

ction: Reframing the leader-follower interaction from an identity theory perspective."Leadership  3(1):115-127


Lundin, Stephen C., Lancaster, Lynne C,, Gardner, John W.

The Importance of Followership,," The Futurist. Volume: 24. Issue: 3. 1990

This article for a journal published by the World Future Society predates much of the recent work on followership and anticipates its emphasis on building assertive and collaborative  working relationships with those who lead. The copyright is is now held by the Gale Group (2002) and linking to the article may not work for all readers.


Mäkelä, Liisa, "Working women positioning themselves in the leader-follower relationship as a result of pregnancy," Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 24, 2009 


The purpose of this paper is to identify how pregnant women position themselves in the relationship with their immediate leader as a result of their pregnancy. Secondly, this study explores what kind of discourses pregnant followers' produce and use when they represent the reasons why the relationship with their leader developed the way it did during their pregnancy.



Mäkelä, Liisa  "Pregnancy and leader-follower dyadic relationships: a research agenda"

Equal Opportunities International (Barmarick Publications), Vol. 24, 2005, pp; 50-72


Women are, in increasing numbers, participating in the labour market and are an important part of an organisation’s human resource pool. Nevertheless, women still face inappropriate treatment at work. One cause of this is family-related issues. In particular, pregnancy and  child birth present special challenges for working women. Discrimination towards pregnant women is commonplace in work settings. Problems are often related to individual work  relationships, for example, the one between the pregnant follower and her manager. It is important to understand problems that impact on women in working life that can disturb their job satisfaction, their performance and willingness to give their best for the organisation. Therefore, for the benefit of both employer and employee, existing practices in leader follower relationships during pregnancy are worth studying in more depth. In leadership studies, the Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory is focused on dyadic leader-follower relationships and is thus used here to understand this phenomenon. In the present article, the literature on pregnancy and work as well as on LMX is re viewed. On the basis of these reviews, a future research agenda is offered. The author's list of publications indicates that she has presented several papers, since this published article, that deal with the same topic.


Mawere, Mutumwa "Africa 2009 – Leader-follower relationship – A required conversation," The Zimbabwe Telegraph (07/27/09)  Ira Chaleff says that the author of this article uses "many of the language constructs I use, but has woven them wonderfully into the realities of African society.' He is pleased to see "the subject of followership to be entering the dialogue of national and global political discourse."



Mayseless, Ofra "Attachment and the leader—follower relationship," Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Vol. 27, No. 2, 271-280 (2010)

 Leader—follower relationships have been thought to involve attachment dynamics, in particular when these relationships have an affective component. In this paper, I consider why and under what circumstances followers form attachment relationships with a leader and how both a follower’s and a leader’s attachment representations can affect the quality and characteristics of their relationship. Results from several studies, focused on different contexts and cultures, indicate that secure individuals tend to be nominated as leaders, and that leaders’ attachment security is associated with pro-social and follower-empowering leadership styles, leadership effectiveness, and positive outcomes for followers. I suggest promising directions for future research (e.g., the study of attachment to political or destructive leaders) and emphasize the importance of contextual moderators (military vs. commercial organizations) and leaders’ "caregiving" behavior.


McCrimmon, Mitch "Derailing the Followership Bandwagon," [unpublished, 2009] is available for downloading as an MSWord document in the sidebar folder entitled "Conversations, Debates, and Queries." Because this article is a download, one must click on a page also entitle "Conversations, Debates, and Queries" in order to access it.


This article has genersted a response from Ira Chaleff (Chaleff's Response to McCrimmon) and a return post from Mitch McCrimmon (McCrimmon's Response to Chaleff). These occurred as a series of email exchanges in late November -early December, 2009.


McCrimmon, Mitch "Can You Follow a Dead Leader?" (ezine article, n.d. )



Meilinger, Col Phillip S. "The Ten Rules of Good Followership," n.d. (pdf)



Mertler, Craig A.; Steyer, Sheri; Petersen, George J. "Teachers' Perceptions of the Leadership/Followership Dialectic." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, October 15-18, 1997)

Study examined whether 67 California and Ohio elementary and secondary school teachers understood the role and importance of followership in influencing school leadership. Teachers provided demographic data and completed the Teacher Sentiment Inventory, which assessed the extent to which their specific actions and characteristics reflected their understanding of followership. They ranked statements associated with particular actions or beliefs concerning the relationship between the teacher and the principal. Results indicated that teachers fell into one of three styles of followership: exemplary followers (with high levels of active engagement and independent thinking), pragmatist followers (who perform required tasks well but seldom venture beyond them), or conformist followers (with high active engagement but low independent thinking). None of the teachers were classified as alienated (independent thinking only) or passive (neither independent thinking nor actively engaged) followers. Both men and women scored high on independent thinking in their work. Female teachers reported higher levels of active engagement in the role of follower than did male teachers. 


Negash G. Medhin,  Wei Wan "Leader-follower games in marketing: a differential game approach,"   International Journal of Mathematics in Operational Research 2010 - Vol. 2, No.2  pp. 151 - 177

      Abstract:    In normal differential game models, players are assumed to make decisions simultaneously. Thus, a competitor does not know the decision policies of others as he decides on his own strategy or control. However, in reality, it is not unusual for competitors to make decisions at different times. Thus, the roles of competitors are not always the same. Some competitors have priority in making decisions of policy over others. Those who make decisions first are called leaders, the others are called followers. This type of game is called Leader-Follower (L-F) or Stackelberg game. The solution of such a game is no longer in terms of Nash equilibrium. In this paper, we consider an L-F differential game to model competition in the final stage of a product life cycle in a non-symmetric market environment, derive and solve the optimality conditions in terms of a new definition of solution..


Okantey, Peter Carlos "Mentoring and Discipling in the Leader/Follower Relationship," The Okantey Group Inc.; Naa Amerley Palm Education (NAPE) Foundation, 2012

This article focuses on the benefits of mentoring and more specifically, e-mentoring versus discipling. In a mentoring relationship, the mentor seeks to assist the mentee to achieve individual goals and realize professional dreams and visions, while a leader in a discipling relationship seeks to assimilate the disciple to become just like the leader. A discipling relationship lacks development beyond the leaders’ capacity. A mentoring relationship stimulates growth and enhances individuality on the part of the mentee. For today’s ever changing global world and economy, along with technological advances, e-mentoring provides mentoring in a less complicated, but highly effective manner.



Oudheusden, Katrijn van "The Art of Following," Foundation for European Leadership Paper Number 1. May 2005

The Foundation for European Leadership, assumed, at the time this article was written, that the subject of following was almost non-existent in the literature on leadership. It also asserts that if following is discussed at all, it is discussed as a derivative of leadership and not as a subject in its own right. To fill the void concerning theories on following, three authors of the Dutch consultancy Berenschot have developed a model of followership, with archetypes of good and bad follower behaviour. Their independently arrived at views are outlined in this paper. Practices from Shell, ABN AMRO, and TNT Group are used to illustrate organizational views on followership. This paper concludes that the leader – follower dichotomy is a false paradox. Following and leading are not roles or even mindsets, but internal activities within the same person that can switch from leading to following and back again in an instant. What is needed in organizations is heavy followership and light leadership. The full article is available as a .pdf file.



PALVEN, PETER " Social Sounds," website.n.d. Solomon Asch's famous experiments on conformity are a crucial element of understanding follower behavior and followership development. Palven explains, "Social Sounds is a metaphor for social behavior... how people conform to surrounding trends to fit in to an adjacent pattern, or similarly how frogs synchronize their singing to each other."


Seitchik, Michael "Dilemmas in the HR Partnership," Human Resource Planning, Vol. 20, 1997

"HR professionals often find themselves in a dilemma. While their organizations are asking them to become leaders and partners in running the business, they are frequently asked to implement initiatives and programs with which they have no formal authority. In addition, they may have to implement programs with which they disagree. The programs may be based on a poor or non-existent diagnosis of the problem, in opposition to the stated values of the company, or only a superficial reaction to a deep-seated problem. In these situations, the dilemma becomes how to take a leadership position and still feel good about yourself as a professional." [excerpt]


Siegel, Michael E. "D'var Toray, Ya Verah, Abraham as a Courageous Follower" September 2006 The model of Abraham as a courageous follower highlights and contrasts modern examples: the Civil Rights Movember, Nazi Germany, JFK, and the Iraq War.


________, "Social Technology and the Biology of Leadership,TechExecSociety, September 9, 2008


"In the introduction to "The Art of Followership" Warren Bennis tells us that 'Generously supported researchers are even now using functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore how leaders and followers think. The best of that work will be a worthy addition to the insights offered by this volume.' This article is a useful example of what he meant. The only flaw I see in this stimulating article is that the authors describe only the neurological effects flowing from the leader to his or her followers. I'd venture that future experiements will show the flow from followers to leaders playing an equally dynamic role. Of course, such findings may further beg the question "who is leading and who is following?" But certainly within formal leader-follower constructs it is useful to study and acknowledge the two-way influences"-- Ira Chaleff


Sinha, Paresha N. and Brad Jackson "A Burkean Inquiry into Leader-Follower Identification Motives, "  Culture and Organization: The official journal of the Standing Conference on Organizational Symbolism. Volume 12, Issue 3 September 2006 , pages 233 - 247

The primary goal of this paper is to develop a rhetorically based understanding of the dynamics of the identification process between transformational or charismatic leaders and their followers. We bring to bear Burke's theory of identification in an effort to provide a finely nuanced and deeply rooted conceptualization of follower identification that we perceive to be a weakness of the transformational/charismatic leadership discourse. A secondary goal is to evaluate leader-follower identification motives to reveal the potential for 'questionable' motives on the part of both leaders and followers. A dramaturgical model is utilized to reveal the dramatic struggle that underlies the leader-follower identification process. We suggest that Goffman's views on morality and manipulation can provide a useful supplement to Burke's theory of identification as it highlights the performative aspects of transformational and charismatic leadership.


Townsend, Pat and Joan E. Gebhardt "For service to work right, skilled leaders need skills in “followership," Managing Service Quality. vol.7, issue 3, 1997

One definition of a leader is a person who has followers. Argues that, to be a skilled leader, the role of follower needs to be clearly understood - indeed a good leader should make a good follower _ and that somewhere within this concept is the very basis of teamwork. Using examples from the US military and the world of sport, explains the authors’ understanding of followership in relation to today’s business context, and offers a series of guidelines for effective “followership”.


Van Gils Suzanne, Niels van Quaquebeke,  and Daan van Knippenberg "The X-Factor: On the Relevance of Implicit Leadership and Followership Theories for Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Agreement," ERIM report series research in management Erasmus Research Institute of Management (11/20/09). Research Paper available online in PDF.

While Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) research shows that leaders engage in different kinds of relationships with different followers, it remains somewhat of an enigma why one and the same relationship is often rated differently by a leader and the respective follower. This paper seeks to fill that conceptual void by explaining when and why such LMX disagreement is likely to occur.



Van Vugt, Mark "Despotism, Democracy, and the Evolutionary Dynamics of Leadership and Followership," American Psychologist, v64 n1 p54-56 Jan 2009

A brief narrative description of the journal article, document, or resource.    Responds to comments made by George B. Graen and Stephen J. Guastello on the current author's article Leadership, followership, and evolution: Some lessons from the past by Van Vugt, Hogan, and Kaiser. In the original article my co-authors and I proposed a new way of thinking about leadership, informed by evolutionary (neo-Darwinian) theory. In the first commentary, Graen noted that we ignored a number of recently developed psychological theories of leadership that take into account the leader-follower relationship, most notably LMX theory. LMX theory asserts that leadership effectiveness and team performance are affected by the quality of working relationships between superior and subordinates. Because the original article primarily dealt with questions about the origins of leadership--the phylogenetic and evolutionary causes--we had to be concise in our review of proximate psychological theories of leadership. In the second commentary, Guastello concurred with the importance of an evolutionary game analysis for studying leadership but disagreed with certain details of our analysis. ---ERIC


Van Vugt, M., Hogan, R., & Kaiser, R. (2008). "Leadership, followership, and evolution: Some lessons from the past." American Psychologist, 63, 182-196. A full .pdf of this article may be found by clinking on Van Vugt and scrolling down his list of published works. ___________ "



Wang, L., Hinrichs, K. T. , Prieto, L., & Black, J. A. (2010).  The effect of followers' behavior on leader efficacy.   Journal of Business and Management.


Wee, Elijah Xun Ming, "Dynamic Followership," Pointer: Journal of the Singapore Armed Forces, Vol 34, no.3, 2

This article illuminates the active and symbiotic relationship between leaders and followers in a post-industrial, knowledge-based environment where "followers very often possesses knowledge and expertise in greater depth compared to the leader." Organizations in this era often operate with a reduced workforce causing followers to perform tasks previously performed by leaders. Although Elijah  Xun Ming Wee is writing for the military he draws analogies to business. Work exists in increasingly complex environments which he describes as Volatile, Uncertain, Complex and Ambiguous (VUCA). Under such circumstances, "Rigid control mechanisms (e.g. rules of engagement, Standard Operating Procedures) communicated one way from the leader to the follower "may be less useful than they once were, but communication between followers as well as between leader and followers are more important than ever." The author also underscores the importance of leaders making sure that they and  their followers understand and share a common vision.









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