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INTERNATIONAL LEADERSHIP ASSOCIATION'S FOLLOWERSHIP COMMUNITY OF LEARNING where those with curiosity about followership and leader-follower relations can explore these subjects in whatever depth they choose through study groups, relevant news and events, research, shared projects and resource links.


Registered users can enter information directly and make collaborative decisions about what this site contains and how it functions. Anyone may browse but those who wish to participate by posting and editing information can sign up for a free, private account with a password. Please note that membership in the International Leadership Association (ILA) is encouraged, but not required, to participate in our learning community. Feel free to contact one of the administrators, Ira Chaleff or Elisabeth Higgins Null to discuss the wiki or to get help in participating. We'd love to receive a line or two about who you are, what you do professionally or academically, and the nature of your interest in followership and leader-follower relations.


Learn more about ILA Join ILA.


ILA 's 12th Annual Global Conference - Leadership 2.0: Time for Action

Boston, MA, USA - October 27 - 30, 2010

Call for Proposals – Deadline March 1, 2010


The ILA’s 12th Annual Global Conference calls on leadership scholars and educators, business and community leaders, students and young leaders to propose conference sessions that offer the finest leadership of your sector and across sector to best position leaders and leadership for the next decade.


View the Complete Call for Proposals and Submit Your Proposal 

Questions - contact Josh Tarr at jtarr@ila-net.org.





One purpose of the Followership Learning Community is to ensure the subject of followership is richly represented in leadership conversations. As current president of the Followership Learning Community, I would like to encourage those with a passion for exploring and strengthening the follower role to consider submitting proposals for individual or panel presentations at the upcoming International Leadership Conference: Leadership 2.0: Time for Action


We need to find collaborators and coordinate proposals. To make this easier we are setting up a special folder "Follower Ideas ILA 2010"  in the sidebar where those interested in presenting papers at the conference can contact others with an interest in collaborating on topics. Use the comment section at the bottom of the dedicated page in our new folder to comment on others' ideas or to make brief queries, proposals or suggestions of your own.


We will also put notices similar to this one for ILA members. These will be in the ILA Social Space,  on the listserv, and in the newsletter. The conference title acknowledges that it is time for action. Let's make sure the small but growing band of followership scholars and practitioners are well represented!


--- Ira Chaleff


Here is a place where ILA members with an interest in followership can search for related paper proposals for possible panels. Of course, we have our own sidebar folder, "Follower ideeas ILA 2010," as well.





The Courageous Follower: Standing Up To & For Our Leaders


In conjunction with the Third Edition of The Courageous Follower, Ira Chaleff is now offering an online, reflective self-assesment test for personal and professional growth and development. It is now available online from Berrett-Koehler’s website.


Announcing an updated 3rd Edition by Ira Chaleff:





The updated third edition of Ira Chaleff's classic text on Followership, The Courageous Follower (Berrett Koehler: 1995, 2003, 2009) includes a new chapter, “The Courage to Speak to the Hierarchy.” Much of Chaleff’s model is based on followers having access to the leader. But today, followers can be handed questionable policies and orders that come from many levels above them—even from the other side of the world. Chaleff explores how they can respond effectively, particularly using the power now available through advances in communications technology. The book is available at Amazon in print and for Kindle. It can also be ordered in print or as an e-book directly through the publisher, Berrett-Koehler.








Elizabeth Doty has written a new book, 

The Compromise Trap: How to Thrive at Work Without Sellong Your Soul (Berrett-Koehler, 2009) that, while it is not about followership per se, teems with advice that those playing a follower role may find particularly useful.



Robert M. Wachter and Kaveh Shojania's Internal Bleeding:The Truth Behind America's Terrifying Epidemic of Medical Mistakes

(Rugged Land, 2005) looks at the failures of communication under pressure within today's hospitals, where a small mistake can result in death or serious injury. What makes this book valuable to those in both leader and follower roles, particularly in the health field, is its weath of suggestions for improving the flow of information and procedures. The authors, both medical doctors, have written a book as compelling as a novel. As such, it can be read and understood by general readers.--Elisabeth Higgins Null




Annotated List of Articles on Followership for Government Workers



GovLeaders.org is a site founded in 2002 by Don Jacobson, a career Foreign Service Officer, and is designed for government workers. It recommends key articles on followership

for those working in government positions. The recommendations are annotated and are supplemented by more annotated lists, in a sidebar, of books on leader-follower relations that should interest  civil servants.






Adair, Rodger "The Psychological Distance within the Dynamics of the Leader/Follower Relationship," Kravis Leadership Institute, Leadership Review, Vol. 10, Winter 2010, pp. 27 - 38

For the last few decades (1980's through the present), the majority of social psychology research into leadership dynamics of an organization has focused on the management employee, treating the rank and file with cursory interest through studies on productivity, job satisfaction and retention. With the introduction of the terms "Follower" and "Followership" injected into the leadership/management vocabulary, social psychologists and leadership consultants began taking a fresh new look at the human side of work. This new line of inquiry focuses on the follower in the organization, while this paper takes a close look at the leader-follower dynamic in the workplace. The literature review identified eight workforce relationship factors as common themes within the leader-follower relationship. These selected categories identify the multifaceted leader-follower dynamic to working relationships, showing whether leader and the follower have a distal (or psychologically distant), or proximal (or psychologically aligned) relationship, and whether each is comfortable with their working arrangement (positive or negative). To better illuminate this interaction of opposites, a case scenario will be employed to describe how proximal and distal interactions look before and after an upsetting workplace event.


Amabile, Teresa M. and Steven J. Kramer, 1."What Really Motivates Workers: Understanding the Power of Progress," (The HBR List: Breakthrough Ideas for 2010)

Harvard Business Review (January-February 2010)

Ramifications for all: reformers, policymakers, educators, and students

In The Harvard Business Review, the headlining breakthrough idea (out of ten) for 2010 is that what motivates "knowledge workers" the most is not recognition, incentives, interpersonal support, or clear goals. It's a sense of progress. "On days when workers have the sense they're making headway in their jobs, or when they receive support that helps them overcome obstacles," the authors write, "their emotions are most positive and their drive to succeed is at its peak." On the other hand, days when they spin their wheels or encounter roadblocks to meaningful accomplishment, their moods and motivation are lowest. The article is based on a multiyear study that tracked day-to-day activities, emotions, and motivation levels of hundreds of knowledge workers in a wide range of settings. So what advice does The Business Review offer to those in charge? "Scrupulously avoid impeding progress by changing goals autocratically, being indecisive, or holding up resources. Negative events generally have a greater effect on people's emotions, perceptions, and motivation than positive ones, and nothing is more demotivating than a setback -- the most prominent type of event on knowledge workers' worst days."

Read more: http://hbr.org/2010/01/the-hbr-list-breakthrough-ideas-for-2010/ar/1


Negash G. Medhin,  Wei Wan "Leader-follower games in marketing: a differential game approach,"   International Journal of Mathematics in Operational Research 2010 - Vol. 2, No.2  pp. 151 - 177

      Abstract:    In normal differential game models, players are assumed to make decisions simultaneously. Thus, a competitor does not know the decision policies of others as he decides on his own strategy or control. However, in reality, it is not unusual for competitors to make decisions at different times. Thus, the roles of competitors are not always the same. Some competitors have priority in making decisions of policy over others. Those who make decisions first are called leaders, the others are called followers. This type of game is called Leader-Follower (L-F) or Stackelberg game. The solution of such a game is no longer in terms of Nash equilibrium. In this paper, we consider an L-F differential game to model competition in the final stage of a product life cycle in a non-symmetric market environment, derive and solve the optimality conditions in terms of a new definition of solution.


Linecker, Adelia Cellini "Ways To Back Your Boss

," Investor's Business Daily (12/30/09) offers tips to middle managers, executive assistants, and others serving as gatekeepers for leaders higher up the chain of command. Based on  an interview with Ira Chaleff.


Van Gils Suzanne, Niels van Quaquebeke,  and Daan van Knippenberg "The X-Factor: On the Relevance of Implicit Leadership and Followership Theories for Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Agreement," ERIM report series research in management Erasmus Research Institute of Management (11/20/09). Research Paper available online in PDF.

While Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) research shows that leaders engage in different kinds of relationships with different followers, it remains somewhat of an enigma why one and the same relationship is often rated differently by a leader and the respective follower. This paper seeks to fill that conceptual void by explaining when and why such LMX disagreement is likely to occur.


Meilinger, Col Phillip S. "The Ten Rules of Good Followership," n.d. (pdf)



McCrimmon, Mitch "Derailing the Followership Bandwagon," [unpublished, 2009] is available for downloading as an MSWord document in the sidebar folder entitled "Conversations, Debates, and Queries." Because this article is a dowload, one must click on a page also entitle "Conversations, Debates, and Queries" in order to access it.


This article has genersted a response from Ira Chaleff (Chaleff's Response to McCrimmon) and a return post from Mitch McCrimmon. These occurred as a series of email exchanges in late November -early December, 2009.

Mawere, Mutumwa "
 Ira Chaleff says that the author of this article uses "many of the language constructs I use, but has woven them wonderfully into the realities of African society.' He is pleased to see "the subject of followership to be entering the dialogue of national and global political discourse."










Berg, David, "Resurrecting the Muse: Followership in Organizations," The Psychodynamics of Leadership (eds. Klein , Gabelnick, Herr). Psychosocial Press: 1998 




In a field that is seeing increasing numbers of rich contributions to its literature, the article "Resurrecting the Muse: Followership in Organizations" by David N. Berg, Ph. D is, in my opinion, the most important single piece of writing on followership I've read since Barbara Kellerman's book "Followership". Dr. Berg approaches the subject from a pyschodynamic perspective which, while not unique in the literature, is certainly rare. It permits him to draw on a fascinating array of cultural examples to help us formulate new understandings of the deficiency of leader-centric models, and to appreciate on deeper levels the nature of the interdependent bonds that exist in true follower-leader relationships.








 The formulation of his thinking is also fresh. He pulls his imagery from participants in a series of workshops he has conducted on followership. In response to his probing, the participants offer a colorful range of models of followership the culture has impressed on their psyches. By exploring the commonalities of these models and artfully categorizing them, Dr. Berg offers a peek into our cultural "collective unconscious" on follower-leader relationships. He offers brilliant analysis of the struggle in mature follower-leader relationships and the great opportunities for mutual fulfillment. And he does all this in a  remarkably accessible style delightfully free of  jargon that the very notion of psychodynamics can evoke. We are indebted to him for expanding the richness of the literature in the field--- Ira Chaleff








Kuper, Wendelin "
Perspectives on Integrating Leadership and Follower," International Journal of leadership Studies, Vol 2, no. 3, 2009
The paper proposes a framework for the integration of leadership and followership. An integral orientation considers that leadership is constitutively linked with followership and vice versa. Facing the diversity of approaches and theories in both fields, a comprehensive conceptualization is presented that is suited to investigating complex, interrelated processes of leading and following. Based on a holonic understanding, integral perspectives cover the interdependent subjective, intersubjective, and objective dimensions of leaders and followers; respectively, leadership and followership within a developmental perspective. Based on an integral orientation, further processual and relational dimensions are discussed by which mutually interwoven leadership/followership can be understood as an emerging event, embedded within an ongoing, interrelated nexus. Finally, the paper outlines some theoretical and methodological implications and perspectives for future research of an integral leadership and followership.








Wee, Elijah Xun Ming, "Dynamic Followership," Pointer: Journal of the Singapore Armed Forces, Vol 34, no.3, 2



This article illuminates the active and symbiotic relationship between leaders and followers in a post-industrial, knowledge-based environment where "followers very often possesses knowledge and expertise in greater depth compared to the leader." Organizations in this era often operate with a reduced workforce causing followers to perform tasks previously performed by leaders. Although Elijah  Xun Ming Wee is writing for the military he draws analogies to business. Work exists in increasingly complex environments which he describes as Volatile, Uncertain, Complex and Ambiguous (VUCA). Under such circumstances, "Rigid control mechanisms (e.g. rules of engagement, Standard Operating Procedures) communicated one way from the leader to the follower "may be less useful than they once were, but communication between followers as well as between leader and followers are more important than ever." The author also underscores the importance of leaders making sure that they and  their followers understand and share a common vision.








Theory and Practice, Wall Street Journal. December 24, 2007; Page B3
There is a
related to this article that discusses the question: "Who's more crucial to a company's success, top management or lower-level employees.
Baker, Susan D. "
." Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies,14, no.1:50-60 August, 2007 This article explores the theoretical foundations of followership in the years preceding the seminal work of Robert Kelley in 1988. A version may be accessed free (with brief registration) at the following link:






Bennis, Warren "FollowershipNational Association of Litho Clubs, 2008





 "Perhaps the ultimate irony is that the follower willing to speak out shows precisely the kind of initiative that leadership is made of." 





Bluedorn, Allen C. and Kimberly S. Jaussi, Leaders, Followers, and Time,"  The Leadershuip Quarterly




Volume 19, Issue 6, December 2008 (free access to ILA members)






 In order to consider leadership from a temporal perspective, we examine extant leadership research that refers to temporal variables in its theorizing and/or empirical testing. We consider rhythmic patterns manifested in leader and follower behavior and employ entrainment, polychronicity, pace/speed, punctuality, and temporal depth as categorization concepts for the analysis. Further, we propose general theoretical statements about temporal dimensions and their prospective roles in relationships and processes related to leadership.







Clements, Christine and John B. Washbush, "



The Two Faces of Leadership: Considering the Dark Side of Leader-Follower Dynamics






,"  Journal of Workplace Learning: Employee Counseling Today, vol. 11, no. 5 (1999)




 Leaders are not always benevolent; their intents not always benign.  Followers are not necessarily passive and devoid of responsibility.  History has taught us these lessons enough times - why then is popularmanagement literature so full of inspirational transformational models of leadership?







Chaleff, Ira "Bullies' Hidden Danger: End the Spiral of Cruelty Through Intervention of Bystanders,: 





End the Spiral of Cruelty Through Intervention of Bystanders



"Baltimore Sun. February 14, 2008






Cummins, Richard Stories of migrant farm workers at a servant-led orchard, Dissertation, Gonzaga University, 2008 



Writings about servant-leadership so far have focused primarily on the leader, and scholars in the field of leadership studies have paid relatively little attention to the potential revolutionary impact that servant-leadership has on followers if fully practiced. To gain a better understanding of followers in a servant-led institution, this study gathered stories from the workers in a servant-led organization and analyzed them through the lens of Greenleaf's "best test" (2002). A chapter section that reviews models of followership is presented








Gilbert, Jillian and Sergio Matviuk "


The Symbiotic Nature of the Leader-Follower relationship and Its Impact on Organizational Effectiveness,


"  Academic Leadership: The Online Journal, Vol. 6, #4, 2008





Grillo, Michael "




The Social Psychology of Leadership and Followership in Symbolic Politics Theory: An Experimental Approach to Studying Why Individuals Follow Nationalist Elites," Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th Annual Convention "Bridging Mational Divides," San Francisco, CA. (Mar. 26, 2008) .pdf



This paper asks what are the factors that prompt individuals to support the initiatives of chauvinistic nationalist leaders? I argue that both the ethnic conflict and nationalist literatures have not given sufficient attention to the individual level factors that would prompt ordinary people to follow nationalist leaders and eventually engage in violence for the sake of their group. But rather, the majority of the research from both the rationalist and ideational traditions have deduced the factors that drive individual and mass behavior from theoretical assumptions and evidence the centers only on the actions and rhetoric of elites. Thus, while scholars have adequately addressed how elites can mobilize mass populations, they have given little attention as to why elites are able to do to so. To address these empirical and theoretical gaps, I develop an approach that builds upon symbolic politics theory and insights from social psychology. I contend that hostile myths and symbols evoke an array of negative emotions that facilitates more rigid thinking and an openness to taking risks, and that individuals support elites who offer an outlet for these emotions because it fulfills basic psychological needs such as having a positive individual and collective sense self-esteem and a feeling of control over the current situation and the future. I test both my modified symbolic politics approach and its rational choice competitor with a laboratory experiment that utilizes 200 undergraduate subjects.


Haslam, S. Alexander and Michael J. Platow "

The Link between Leadership and Followership: How Affirming Social Identity Translates Vision into Action, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 27, No. 11, 1469-1479 (2001)


 Two experiments test the hypothesis that support for leaders is enhanced when their decisions affirm a distinct social identity that is shared with followers. In Experiment 1, participants showed less support for a leader who favored ingroup members who were relatively sympathetic to an outgroup position than for one who favored ingroup members who opposed an outgroup position. This finding was replicated in Experiment 2, which also showed that this pattern extended to support for the leader’s novel plans. Although participants indicated that they supported a leader who behaved evenhandedly toward all ingroup members as much as one whose behavior was identity-affirming, they were unwilling to back up the evenhanded leader with written comments and arguments. These data suggest that leaders’ capacity to engender active followership is contingent on their ability to promote collective interests associated with a shared ingroup identity.



Hrivnak, George A and Tjai M. Nielsen "Leader-Follower Extraversion Congruence and Follower Perceptions of Transformational Leadership: A Test Using Response Surface Modeling ," George Washington University August 1, 2008 (working paper available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1294008)


Using polynomial regression and response surface modeling in a lagged field study, we examine relationships among leader and follower extraversion fit and follower ratings of transformational leadership.  This paper builds on prior research investigating the influence that leader and follower personality factors have on follower perceptions of leadership.



Data from a sample of 117 Naval Midshipmen dyads suggest that leader-follower extraversion congruence at Time 1 was positively related to higher follower ratings of transformational leadership at Time 2. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to perceptions and attributions of leadership, the potential role that extraversion congruence may play in the development of leader-follower relationships, and the role of personality across different fit contexts. 




Kellerman, Barbara " 

What Every Leader Needs to Know About Followers," Harvard Business Review. December I, 2007


 Lundin, Stephen C., Lancaster, Lynne C,, Gardner, John W.

The Importance of Followership,," The Futurist. Volume: 24. Issue: 3. 1990

This article for a journal published by the World Future Society predates much of the recent work on followership and anticipates its emphasis on building assertive and collaborative  working relationships with those who lead. The copyright is is now held by the Gale Group (2002) and linking to the article may not work for all readers.


Luhrmann, T., and P. Eberl. 2007".Leadership and identity constru

ction: Reframing the leader-follower interaction from an identity theory perspective."Leadership  3(1):115-127







Mäkelä, Liisa, "Working women positioning themselves in the leader-follower relationship as a result of pregnancy," Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 24, 2009 


 The purpose of this paper is to identify how pregnant women position themselves in the relationship with their immediate leader as a result of their pregnancy. Secondly, this study explores what kind of discourses pregnant followers' produce and use when they represent the reasons why the relationship with their leader developed the way it did during their pregnancy.









Mäkelä, Liisa



Pregnancy and leader-follower dyadic relationships: a research agenda

,, Equal Opportunities International (Barmarick Publications), Vol. 24, 2005, pp; 50-72



 Women are, in increasing numbers, participating in the labour market and are an important part of an organisation’s human resource pool. Nevertheless, women still face inappropriate treatment at work. One cause of this is family-related issues. In particular, pregnancy and  child birth present special challenges for working women. Discrimination towards pregnant women is commonplace in work settings. Problems are often related to individual work  relationships, for example, the one between the pregnant follower and her manager. It is important to understand problems that impact on women in working life that can disturb their job satisfaction, their performance and willingness to give their best for the organisation. Therefore, for the benefit of both employer and employee, existing practices in leader follower relationships during pregnancy are worth studying in more depth. In leadership studies, the Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory is focused on dyadic leader-follower relationships and is thus used here to understand this phenomenon. In the present article, the literature on pregnancy and work as well as on LMX is re viewed. On the basis of these reviews, a future research agenda is offered. The author's list of publications indicates that she has presented several papers, since this published article, that deal with the same topic.



Lim, Jason "Uncomfortable 'Followers,"  The Korea Times (04/16/07)

The moral argument by Jason Lim in this Korean Times article is a compelling example of the potential difference courageous followership can make in transforming the world. Kim studied with Barbara Kellerman at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government. In addition to her own work, Followership, Kellerman uses elements of my book "The Courageous Follower: Standing Up To and For Our Leaders" in her class on followership. I am pleased to inform Jason and others that the book has been published in Korea by Sigma Press, Inc. In the article Lim calls for other Asian countries to also pay more attention to what is good followership, so I will also refer to the Chinese translation of The Courageous Follower by Successmart in Taipei and a forthcoming Japanese translation by Diamond Press in Tokyo. As the title changes to make linguistic and cultural sense in other languages, a search by author may be most productive— Ira Chaleff








McCrimmon, Mitch "Can You Follow a Dead Leader?" (ezine article, n.d. )




Mertler, Craig A.; Steyer, Sheri; Petersen, George J.Teachers' Perceptions of the Leadership/Followership Dialectic." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, October 15-18, 1997)



Study examined whether 67 California and Ohio elementary and secondary school teachers understood the role and importance of followership in influencing school leadership. Teachers provided demographic data and completed the Teacher Sentiment Inventory, which assessed the extent to which their specific actions and characteristics reflected their understanding of followership. They ranked statements associated with particular actions or beliefs concerning the relationship between the teacher and the principal. Results indicated that teachers fell into one of three styles of followership: exemplary followers (with high levels of active engagement and independent thinking), pragmatist followers (who perform required tasks well but seldom venture beyond them), or conformist followers (with high active engagement but low independent thinking). None of the teachers were classified as alienated (independent thinking only) or passive (neither independent thinking nor actively engaged) followers. Both men and women scored high on independent thinking in their work. Female teachers reported higher levels of active engagement in the role of follower than did male teachers.







Social Sounds," website.n.d. Solomon Asch's famous experiments on conformity are a crucial element of understanding follower behavior and followership development.

 Palven explains, "Social Sounds is a metaphor for social behavior... how people conform to surrounding trends to fit in to an adjacent pattern, or similarly how frogs synchronize their singing to each other." 


Van Vugt, Mark "Despotism, Democracy, and the Evolutionary Dynamics of Leadership and Followership," American Psychologist, v64 n1 p54-56 Jan 2009

A brief narrative description of the journal article, document, or resource.    Responds to comments made by George B. Graen and Stephen J. Guastello on the current author's article Leadership, followership, and evolution: Some lessons from the past by Van Vugt, Hogan, and Kaiser. In the original article my co-authors and I proposed a new way of thinking about leadership, informed by evolutionary (neo-Darwinian) theory. In the first commentary, Graen noted that we ignored a number of recently developed psychological theories of leadership that take into account the leader-follower relationship, most notably LMX theory. LMX theory asserts that leadership effectiveness and team performance are affected by the quality of working relationships between superior and subordinates. Because the original article primarily dealt with questions about the origins of leadership--the phylogenetic and evolutionary causes--we had to be concise in our review of proximate psychological theories of leadership. In the second commentary, Guastello concurred with the importance of an evolutionary game analysis for studying leadership but disagreed with certain details of our analysis. ---ERIC




Van Vugt, M., Hogan, R., & Kaiser, R. (2008). "Leadership, followership, and evolution: Some lessons from the past." American Psychologist, 63, 182-196. A full .pdf of this article may be found by clinking on Van Vugt and scrolling down his list of published works. ___________ "





Social Technology and the Biology of Leadership



,"  TechExecSociety, September 9, 2008



"In the introduction to "The Art of Followership" Warren Bennis tells us that 'Generously supported researchers are even now using functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore how leaders and followers think. The best of that work will be a worthy addition to the insights offered by this volume.' This article is a useful example of what he meant. The only flaw I see in this stimulating article is that the authors describe only the neurological effects flowing from the leader to his or her followers. I'd venture that future experiements will show the flow from followers to leaders playing an equally dynamic role. Of course, such findings may further beg the question "who is leading and who is following?" But certainly within formal leader-follower constructs it is useful to study and acknowledge the two-way influences"-- Ira Chaleff








The International leadership Journal is a new online journal in .pdf format. The current (March 2009)









 is downloadable and carries Craig Johnson's "Followership: How Followers Are Creating Change & Changing Leaders; and ,"The Art of Followership: How Great Followers Create Great Leaders & Organizations, " a review of Barbara Kellerman's Followership and  Ronald E. Riggio,  Ira Chaleff, Jean Lipman-Blumen's Art of Followership.





Here are some reviews of books related to Followership that appeared the April 2008 issue of T+D, a publication of the American Society for Training and Development:




Ketter, Paula "Art of Followership: How Great Followers Create Great Leaders and Organizations, The



". T + D. Apr 2008. 


Leigh, Pam "FOLLOWERS TAKE THE LEAD Followership: How Followers Are Creating Change and Changing Leaders




" By Barbara Kellerman, (Harvard Business School Press, 336 pp.) T + D. Apr 2008.







Nancherla, Aparna "

Do the Right Thing: How Dedicated Employees Create Loyal Customers and Large Profits




". T + D. Apr 2008




















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